Some questions I get asked a lot around this time of year are about light and heat in the winter...
"Do I have to bring them inside in the winter?"
"Why aren't my birds laying?"
"My sister's grandfather's brother-in-law says I should always use lights and that I should plan to get new birds every 2 years."(1)
Well, these questions are really about two separate issues - light/laying and heat. Since light is what affects winter egg-laying, let's turn the burner down for a moment and walk towards the sun...
The lights-or-no-lights question can usually be boiled down to a matter of priorities: "higher production now" or "longer egg-laying life". Occasionally with a splash of "natural, seasonal food experience" thrown in as a bonus round.
Personally, I tend towards embracing the dark (said no fantasy or sci-fi hero ever), at least when it comes to chickens.
I got into the local food movement as one way of counteracting our thoroughly-unsustainable industrial food system, and I feel that embracing seasonal cycles is part of that. That said, I completely understand, support, and respect that others have different priorities and therefore may have different approaches. So I'm here to help you make an informed choice. :)
The gist of it is this: hens hatch with a set number of potential future eggs in their single functional ovary (it's the left one... not to be confused with Katy Perry's Left Shark), and while all birds naturally have a dormant period in fall/winter, some smarty-pants figured out that day length is the cue that tells their bodies what season it is. (2)
So if your goal is Lighting Option #1: maximum production now!, then having lights on a timer will trick their bodies into thinking it's not winter and keep them laying. Not as much as spring or summer because there are a few other factors at play, but still more.
|Though be careful how you hang them.|
As for the type of light, there have been studies showing that white LED bulbs are the most effective, and they are also, conveniently, the ones that give off the least heat so they are also the safest option (see our next post for more on heat, but the short of it is: don't bother).
DON'T use any of the Teflon-coated "shatterproof"or "safety-coated" incandescent or fluorescent bulbs - they can emit vapors that are deadly for your birds.
Also DON'T leave a light on all the time! The cold of winter is enough for their bodies to deal with without adding 24 hours of artificial insomnia into the mix. Use a timer, have it come on at 5AM or whatever is appropriate for 14-16 hours of daylight before a natural dusk followed by 8 hours of shut-eye.
And, of course, for anyone in the greater Boston area I would love to do an on-site consultation with you to check out your coop, give your girls a health-and-happiness check, and go over your lighting options. I can even install the lights and timer for you! Find more information on our consultations and classes here. :)
(Note that all hens will go through a molt in the fall to replace their feathers, and will stop laying for a bit while this is happening. Check out I'm so upset that I'm MOLTING! for more on that.)
Lighting Option #2: Laying for a longer life, or embracing your hens' dark side.
Given that they only have a fixed number of total-eggs-for-their-entire-life to work with, adding artificial light to keep them laying means they'll run out of eggs sooner in life, so if it's more important for you and your family that your girls are able to have a "longer egg-laying life" overall, and possibly keep laying until their 8th year or even later, then I'd leave the lights out of it and let them have their winter rest.
seasonal food experience" part of the larger global food system conversation comes into play... If part of your goal of having chickens is to have a closer connection with your food - where it comes from, how it's produced, etc. - then accepting that most naturally-produced foods are seasonal may be part of that experience for you. Leafy greens grow best in the cooler temperatures of spring and fall, squashes and melons and apples get harvested later because they tend to need most of the growing season to mature, and chickens have their most prolific egg production during birds' natural breeding season in the spring then lay less in the fall and winter.
(How long they live and how well they lay later in life is also related to breed and bloodlines - I strongly suspect that birds sourced from many of the big hatcheries, which includes chicks bought at nearly all feed stores, tend to be less likely to lay over time and also be more susceptible to health issues after their first year or two. This is why I love being able to help connect backyard chicken owners with birds from local breeders who have higher-quality bloodlines!)
So there you have the endless battle between light and dark, as it pertains to chickens. Stay tuned for our next post, where we'll turn up the HEAT. (But, you know, not like the brimstone and hellfire kind of heat.) :D
(1) The maximum production option also means that you may want to plan to rehome your ladies as they stop laying as much, which tends to happen after their 2nd or 3rd year depending on the individual bird. This isn't an easy-breesy thing to do - the reality is that many city hens who get rehomed to the classic "friend's farm in _(rural area)_" or wherever end up dying within the first year from complications resulting from the stress of moving, disease exposure from being in a new flock, or predators they aren't used to. You also may have to work a little harder to find a home for your beloved pets that you can be 100% sure doesn't involve a stewpot.
(2) Egg-laying hormones are governed in part by the pineal gland, which is a part of the endocrine system that lives in the "third eye" brain area just above and behind the eyes and is affected by light. It is also the gland that produces our sleepy friend, melatonin.)
As always, The Chickeness is available for one-on-one consultations by phone or email, and on-site consultations in the greater Boston area. Please find more information on our website here, or send us an email at TheChickeness at gmail dot com. Please include a little about your flock (how many, breeds, ages, where you got your birds, etc), where you are located, and a thorough description of your current issue or question, and I'll reply ASAP! :)